| 1 | = Spin-2 production at hadron Colliders = |
| 2 | |
| 3 | Many new physics scenarios predict spin-2 particles at the TeV scale. Here we summarize the theories that contains spin-2 particles implemented in !MadGraph/MadEvent. They are the following: |
| 4 | |
| 5 | * ADD or Large extra dimension theory; |
| 6 | * RS or Warped extra dimension theory; |
| 7 | * MGM (masseless graviton) model. |
| 8 | |
| 9 | == ADD theory == |
| 10 | |
| 11 | Theory with D = 4 + d dimensions, with additional d spatial dimensions assumed to be compactified to be a torus with common radius R. Because only spin-2 particles can propagate through D dimensions, a massive KK tower of spin-2 particles appear in 4 dimensions. They can interact with the SM fields with a very weak coupling constant given by -1/Λ: |
| 12 | |
| 13 | {{{ |
| 14 | |
| 15 | #!latex |
| 16 | $\Lambda = \overline{M_{pl}} \sim 2.4 \times 10^{18} GeV$ |
| 17 | }}} |
| 18 | The mass gap between neighbouring modes is proportional to 1/R, hence small for d not too large. The discrete mass spectrum can be approximated by a continuum with an integrated density of states. In other words, the 4 dimensional spin-2 particles appears as a infinite sum of its excited states. |
| 19 | |
| 20 | __'''Consequence'''__: Spin-2 should not decay fast, so it is expected to be seem as missing energy @ hadron colliders. |
| 21 | |
| 22 | __'''In !MadGraph/MadEvent'''__: This model is called ''ADD'' and you can ask for processes using for example this [https://cp3.irmp.ucl.ac.be/projects/madgraph/attachment/wiki/Models/SpinTwo/ADD_proc_card.dat proc_card.dat], and this [https://cp3.irmp.ucl.ac.be/projects/madgraph/attachment/wiki/Models/SpinTwo/ADD_param_card.dat param_card.dat]. |
| 23 | |
| 24 | |
| 25 | * Model references: |
| 26 | * I. Antoniadis, N. Arkani-Hamed, S. Dimopoulos and G. R. Dvali: [http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9803315 hep-ph/9803315], [http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9807344 hep-ph/9807344], [http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9804398 hep-ph/9804398] |
| 27 | * Implementation references: |
| 28 | * K. Hagiwara, J. Kanzaki, Q. Li and K. Mawatari: [http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.2554 arXiv/0805.2554] |
| 29 | * P. de Aquino, K. Hagiwara, Q. Li and F. Maltoni: [http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.5499 arXiv/1101.5499] |
| 30 | |
| 31 | == RS theory == |
| 32 | |
| 33 | Theory with D = 4 + 1 dimensions, in which the extra dimension is spatial and assumed to be compactified to be a torus with radius R. Here, the total space-time has a warped metric and the size of the extra dimension can be at the order of the Planck length. Again, only spin-2 particles can propagate through 5 dimensions, therefore, a massive KK tower of spin-2 particles appear in 4 dimensions. They can interact with the SM fields with a strong coupling constant given by -1/Λ: |
| 34 | {{{ |
| 35 | |
| 36 | #!latex |
| 37 | $\Lambda = \overline{M_{pl}} \, e^{kR\pi}$ |
| 38 | }}} |
| 39 | where k is a scale of order of the Planck scale. In this model, the mass of the nth spin-2 particle is given by: |
| 40 | {{{ |
| 41 | |
| 42 | #!latex |
| 43 | $m_n = k \, x_n \, e^{-kR\pi}$ |
| 44 | }}} |
| 45 | which can be ~ O(1 TeV), at the LHC reach. |
| 46 | |
| 47 | __'''Consequence'''__: Spin-2 should decay very fast and it is expected to be seem as a resonance @ hadron colliders (e.g., it decays into a pair of leptons). |
| 48 | |
| 49 | __'''In !MadGraph/MadEvent'''__: This model is called ''RS'' and you can ask for processes using for example this [https://cp3.irmp.ucl.ac.be/projects/madgraph/attachment/wiki/Models/SpinTwo/RS_proc_card.dat proc_card.dat], and this [https://cp3.irmp.ucl.ac.be/projects/madgraph/attachment/wiki/Models/SpinTwo/RS_param_card.dat param_card.dat]. |
| 50 | |
| 51 | * Model references: |
| 52 | * L. Randall and R. Sundrum:[http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/9905221 hep-ph/9905221], [http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/9906064 hep-th/9906064] |
| 53 | * Implementation references: |
| 54 | * K. Hagiwara, J. Kanzaki, Q. Li and K. Mawatari: [http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.2554 arXiv/0805.2554] |
| 55 | * P. de Aquino, K. Hagiwara, Q. Li and F. Maltoni: [http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.5499 arXiv/1101.5499] |
| 56 | |
| 57 | == MGM model == |
| 58 | |
| 59 | Four-dimensional model that contains a huge number of hidden sector particles that interacts only gravitationally with the Standard Model particles. It has been suggested that gravity may be interpreted as renormalization of the effective gravity coupling due to these hidden sector particles. Therefore, the existence of M,,pl,,/TeV ~ 10^32^ such particles is required. |
| 60 | |
| 61 | The graviton is massless in this class of theories and its coupling to the SM particles is given by -1/Λ: |
| 62 | {{{ |
| 63 | |
| 64 | #!latex |
| 65 | $\Lambda = \overline{M_{pl}}(\mu^{*}) \sim \mu^{*} \sim 1 \, TeV.$ |
| 66 | }}} |
| 67 | Notice \overline{M,,pl,,} now depends on the effective energy scale. |
| 68 | |
| 69 | __'''Consequence'''__: Spin-2 should not decay fast, so it is expected to be seem as missing energy @ hadron colliders. |
| 70 | |
| 71 | __'''In !MadGraph/MadEvent'''__: This model is called ''massless_grav'' and you can ask for processes using for example this [https://cp3.irmp.ucl.ac.be/projects/madgraph/attachment/wiki/Models/SpinTwo/MGM_proc_card.dat proc_card.dat], and this [https://cp3.irmp.ucl.ac.be/projects/madgraph/attachment/wiki/Models/SpinTwo/MGM_param_card.dat param_card.dat]. |
| 72 | |
| 73 | * Model references: |
| 74 | * G. R. Dvali: [http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0106058 hep-th/0106058], [http://arxiv.org/abs/0706.2050 arXiv/0706.2050], [http://arxiv.org/abs/0710.4344 arXiv/0710.4344] |
| 75 | * X. Calmet, S. D. H. Hsu and D. Reeb: [http://arxiv.org/abs/0711.2306 arXiv/0711.2306], [http://arxiv.org/abs/0803.1836 arXiv/0803.1836], [http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.0145 arXiv/0805.0145] |
| 76 | * Implementation references: |
| 77 | * P. de Aquino, K. Hagiwara, Q. Li and F. Maltoni: [http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.5499 arXiv/1101.5499] |